The Ultimate Guide to the Praxis® Tests

Currently, 38 of the 50 states use Praxis® tests offered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) as part of their teacher and educator certification requirements. These standardized tests span a wide range of content in order to assess educators’ preparedness to teach specific subjects and grade levels. Some states and institutions even require them for entrance to teacher preparation programs.

This free guide is designed to help current and future teachers navigate the Praxis® offerings to ensure they can both select and prepare for the tests that are the best matches for their career aims. Our guide to the praxis exam features information including: what subjects are covered, test formats, and resources for helping students find study guide materials

Frequently Asked Questions

How many different Praxis® tests are there?

The Praxis® tests are constantly evolving. While there are currently over 100 different Praxis® tests, offerings are added, removed, or revised on a yearly basis - this is what can making finding a study guide difficult. For the most up-to-date listings of the required tests for certification in your state including the relevant cutoff scores and other required licensing credentials, be sure to consult the comprehensive resources at certificationmap.com or your state’s official Department of Education webpage.

How much does it cost to take a Praxis® test?

The Praxis® tests range in price from $90 to $210. Additional fees apply for things like extra score reports, score review requests, changing test centers, or registering by phone instead of online.

How are the Praxis® tests scored?

Each test is made up of some combination of selected and constructed response components.Selected response questions are scored electronically. Each question is marked as correct or incorrect with a blank response scored as incorrect.

Constructed response questions are scored by two or more specially trained ETS scorers using approved rating scales.

Test takers can normally request score reviews should they suspect an irregularities or improper results. There is currently a $65 fee for this service.

How are Praxis® tests administered?

The majority of the Praxis® tests are administered via computer, however there are some specific tests (like the Braille Proficiency test) that include analog or performance-based components. Paper tests are available to suit these needs or in cases where students qualify for specific accommodations.

When are the Praxis® tests given?

Some tests, like the Praxis® Core series, are available year-round. However, many of the Praxis® II subject tests are only offered during specific testing windows and at specific testing centers. Test takers must stay on top of the Praxis® testing calendar to be sure they do not miss an opportunity to take the particular tests they need.

Where can Praxis® tests be taken?

Praxis® tests are offered at accredited testing centers both nationwide and internationally.

In states, like Illinois, that do not include the Praxis® tests as part of their teacher preparation or licensure requirements, it is still possible to find testing centers that offer the tests. This is especially beneficial for students studying in states other than where they plan to teach, teachers looking to make a move to another state, or for teachers looking to take advantage of certification reciprocity agreements between states.

How long are the Praxis® test sessions?

Like with most standardized exams, the Praxis® tests are rigidly timed. Depending on the content, tests range from 50 minutes to a whopping 5.5 hours.

Each test session also includes approximately 30 minutes of tutorials and pre-test material. This is not scored content, but does add to the overall length of the test day experience.

Accommodations like extended time and extended breaks are available for those who apply and qualify. Naturally, these modifications can also lead to longer testing times.

What is a considered a good score on a Praxis® test?

Each state has their own cut scores for what is considered “passing” a specific Praxis® test. The latest passing scores guide can be found here on the ETS website.

Select tests are included in the Recognition of Excellence Award program, which is designed to draw attention to high-performing test takers in specific areas.

Can the Praxis® tests be retaken?

Praxis® tests can be retaken, but test takers must wait 21 days (not counting the initial test day) before the next attempt. Failing to wait will result in the retake scores being invalidated.

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The Praxis® Tests

There are three main categories of Praxis® tests:

  • Praxis® Core Academic Skills for Educators (formerly the Praxis® I tests)
  • Praxis® Content Knowledge for Teaching Assessments
  • Praxis® II Subject Assessments

Each category contains multiple tests, each focused on specific content, grade levels, and teaching qualifications. As such, the lengths, question types, and preparation strategies vary. In many instances, however, study guides and test prep materials can be available that are catered to your area of interest

Praxis® Core Academic Skills for Educators Tests

The Praxis® Core assessments are comprised of individual math, reading, and writing tests. They are offered collectively as a single 300-minute testing session or as individual subtests.

Some states and institutions only accept the Praxis® Core tests when they are taken in a single session. Others allow test takers to take the three independently or retake specific subtests in pursuit of passing scores.

That said, test takers must still wait the requisite 21 days before retaking any of the Praxis® Core tests.

Core Academic Skills for Educators: Mathematics

Test Number - 5732

Test Duration - 85 Minutes

Content - The Praxis® Core math test assesses four major strands of mathematical content:

  • Number and Quality
  • Algebra and Functions
  • Geometry
  • Statistics and Probability

Question Types - 56 questions including including single answer, multiple answer, and numerical input

Additional Resources -

For those that struggle with math, the Praxis® Core mathematics test can be difficult. While most of the tested skills are at or around an advanced eighth grade math level, the test often includes some obscure specifics that most people wouldn’t encounter on a regular basis.

The best tip from actual test takers seems to be to memorize the required formulas. Unlike on other standardized tests, there are very few references and supports offered within the Praxis® Core mathematics test itself.

For some extra practice and strategies, check out these helpful download links:

Core Academic Skills for Educators: Reading

Test number - 5712

Test duration - 85 minutes

Content - The Praxis® Core reading test assesses the test taker’s ability to read and analyze various types of text including news media, novels, nonfiction texts, and data displays (charts, graphs, tables, etc.). The test includes short texts that are either around 100 or 200 words. The longer the text, the more questions that will likely be asked about it.

Question types - 56 selected response questions

Additional resources -

Preparing for the Praxis® Core reading test is all about extracting information from text. While some of this information is clearly identifiable, the majority of the test deals with more complex analysis and interpretation. Being able to read between the lines is important!

Test takers need to brush up on analytical skills like identifying and evaluating author's’ purposes, perspectives, stylistic choices, and persuasive techniques. Drawing conclusions, using context clues, and distinguishing between fact and opinion are also common focal points for test questions.

The links below provide helpful examples and study resources:

Core Academic Skills for Educators: Writing

Test number - 5722

Test duration – 100 minutes

Content – The Praxis® Core writing test assesses a variety of writing skills including grammar, sentence structure, research skills, word usage, and other English writing conventions. Test takers are also tasked with writing two timed essays: one argumentative and one informative/explanatory.

Question types – 40 selected response questions (40 minutes) and two essay responses (30 minutes each)

Additional resources -

The Praxis® Core writing test is the only part of the Praxis® Core series of exams that is not entirely constructed response. That said, test takers often become so preoccupied with the two required essays that they forget to prepare adequately for the selected response portion of the test.

In actuality, honing the English language skills assessed in the selected response questions is one of the most effective ways to ensure your essays receive as many points as possible. Improving your grammar, syntax, and word choice will benefit your entire writing test performance.

For more help and advice, spend some time with these strong resources:

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Praxis® Content Knowledge for Teaching Assessments

The Praxis® Content Knowledge for Teaching (CKT) tests are some of the newest offerings in the Praxis® lineup. They evaluate how well prospective elementary level teachers can utilize their content knowledge in effective pedagogical ways.

Elementary Education: Content Knowledge for Teaching Tests

Test number – 7801 (includes subtests 7802-7805)

Test duration – 5.5 total hours spread across four subtests:

  • Reading and Language Arts (7802) – 90 minutes
  • Mathematics (7803) – 85 minutes
  • Science (7804) – 60 minutes
  • Social Studies (7805) – 50 minutes

Content –

What makes these particular tests unique compared to other Praxis® tests is that they blend the assessment of teachers’ content knowledge with their abilities to wield that knowledge to help elementary students learn.

To accomplish this, the multiple-choice questions in each of the four subtests combine grade-level appropriate content with the types of student-focused choices and assessments that are part of an elementary teacher’s daily life.

Question types – Each of the four subtests includes a different number of selected response questions:

  • Reading and Language Arts (7802) – 63 questions
  • Mathematics (7803) – 52 questions
  • Science (7804) – 47 questions
  • Social Studies (7805) – 55 questions

There are no essays or constructed response questions included in any of these subtests.

How to start preparing

Elementary Education: Applied Content Knowledge for Teaching

Test number – 7901 (includes subtests 7902-7905)

Test duration – 5.5 total hours spread across four subtests:

  • Reading and Language Arts (7902) – 90 minutes
  • Mathematics (7903) – 85 minutes
  • Science (7904) – 60 minutes
  • Social Studies (7905) – 50 minutes

Content - Much like the Elementary Education: Content Knowledge for Teaching test, the Applied Content Knowledge for Teaching test assesses elementary teachers’ content knowledge through the lens of practical classroom application. The major difference between the two test series is that the Applied Content Knowledge for Teaching test includes several short, constructed-response questions.

Question types - Each of the four subtests include selected-response questions. The Reading, Language Arts test and Mathematics test each contain two short, constructed-response questions. There are no essays on any of the Applied Content Knowledge for Teaching tests – the longest constructed response is typically no more than four sentences.

  • Reading and Language Arts (7902) – 57 questions
  • Mathematics (7903) – 50 questions
  • Science (7904) – 47 questions
  • Social Studies (7905) – 55 questions

How to start preparing:

  • The test’s Official Praxis® Study Companion includes a detailed breakdown of tested material as well as examples of the different selected and constructed response questions on each subtest.
  • This flashcard set from Cram.com covers many of the key terms and concepts examinees should be comfortable with prior to test day.

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Praxis® II Subject Tests

Each of the Praxis® II Subject Tests is designed to assess a teacher’s knowledge in a particular content area and/or the pedagogical skills required to teach content effectively. These tests are the ones most commonly used as criteria for certification and licensure for teaching specific courses and grade levels.

Most subject areas include multiple test options for the same content. Before registering or preparing for a particular Praxis® II Subject Test, be sure to check the requirements in your state at CertificationMap.com or on your state’s official Department of Education webpage.

This guide outlines the current Praxis® II test offerings according to content areas and includes some free, helpful preparation advice and materials. However, the most comprehensive study materials available for the majority of the Praxis® tests come at a cost.

Before you purchase premium study materials (either print practice books, online study guides, or enroll tutoring services), check to see the content is aligned to the most recent incarnation of the test you are preparing for. Compare the advertised topics in these materials to the test’s Official Praxis® Study Companion to be sure.

Note: the test lengths listed in this guide do not include the extra 30 minutes of tutorials and practice problems included in most Praxis® testing sessions.

The Arts

The umbrella of arts education is a broad one. Schools offer a wide range of courses including music, design, theatre, and other specific creative arts that require qualified, certificated teachers. To meet these diverse needs, the following Praxis® II subject tests tend to cover broad ranges of the relevant content to help ensure candidates have working knowledge in their fields.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Art: Content Knowledge
5134
Teacher of Art (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Art: Content and Analysis
5135
Teacher of Art (K-12)
120
85
3
Praxis Study Companion
Music: Content and Knowledge
5113
Teacher of Music (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Music: Content and Instruction
5114
Teacher of Music (K-12)
120
84
3
Praxis Study Companion
Theatre
5641
Teacher of Theatre Instruction/Direction
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • Most states and schools require the selected-response only Art: Content Knowledge and Music: Content Knowledge tests instead of the alternate versions that require constructed responses.
  • Both of the music tests have sections dedicated that require test-takers to listen to and respond to recorded music clips.
  • While the Theatre test features some general questions about theatre as an art form, the majority of the test focuses on the practical and pedagogical elements involved in selecting and producing theatre productions at the K-12 level.

Additional Resouces:

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Business & Social Sciences

Many of the 21st century skills that appear in both the Common Core and individual state educational standards have roots in business and the social sciences. Pursuing a teaching certification in these fields will likely become increasingly marketable as the push for the next generation of innovators and entrepreneurs ramps up.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Business Education: Content Knowledge
5101
Teacher of Comprehensive Business (K-12), Business Education (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Marketing Education
5561
Teacher of Marketing (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Psychology
5391
Teacher of Psychology (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Sociology
5952
Teacher of Sociology (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Economics
5911
Teacher of Economics (6-12)
120
110
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The Business Education: Content Knowledge test covers a wide variety of business concepts including law, ethics, economics, marketing, entrepreneurship, information technology, and accounting. Since test takers are unlikely to have expert knowledge of every one of the concepts on the test, the passing score tends to be set lower than other Praxis® II Subject Tests.
  • The Psychology and Sociology tests align to the standards of the prominent associations in their respective fields. As such, familiarity with the positions and best practices of American Psychological Association and/or American Sociological Association is crucial.
  • While the Economics test skews towards microeconomics, test takers will need a well-rounded background including macroeconomics and more general economic concepts to be successful.

Additional Resources

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English Language Arts (ELA)

There are a wide variety of instructional and support opportunities for educators in the ELA content area. It should come as no surprise that it is one of the most crowded categories of Praxis® II Subject Tests.

While many of the tests assess similar content, it is essential that test takers prepare for the specific test(s) required by their schools and/or states

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Elementary Ed: Reading and Language Arts
5002 (5001 subtest)
Elementary Teacher (K-6), Reading Specialist (PK-6)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
English Language Arts: Content and Analysis
5039
Teacher of English (6-12) or English Language Arts (9-12)
180
130 (75% of score)
2 Short Essays (25%)
Praxis Study Companion
Middle School English Language Arts
5047
Teacher of English (5-8)
160
110 (75%)
2 Short Essays (25%)
Praxis Study Companion
Journalism
5223
Teacher of Journalism (6-12)
120
100
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Reading Specialist
5301
Reading Specialist (PK-6)(K-12)
120
80
1 Constructed Response, 1 Case Study
Praxis Study Companion
English to Speakers of Other Languages
5362
Teacher of English Language Learners (ELL/ESL) , Teacher of English for Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
English Language Arts: Content Knowledge
5038
Teacher of English Language Arts (6-12)
150
130
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Teaching Reading: Elementary Education
5203
Elementary Teacher
150
90
3
Praxis Study Companion
Teaching Reading
5204
Teacher of Reading Endorsement
120
110
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • Unsurprisingly, several of the ELA tests require constructed responses. In most cases, these tests are continuously timed without hard breaks between the constructed and selected response sections. Managing time, both during preparation for the test is crucial for optimal test day performances.
  • The English to Speakers of Other Languages test includes embedded listening components and prompts as part of its selected response questions.

Additional Resources:

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Mathematics

Mathematics is regularly atop thelist of high need, teacher shortage areas. As a result, teachers with mathematics certifications are constantly in high demand. For teachers looking to improve their employment odds in the education field, becoming a highly qualified math teacher is certainly worth considering.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Elementary Education: Mathematics
5003
Elementary Teacher (K-6)
120
50
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Mathematics: Content Knowledge
5161
Teacher of Mathematics (6-12)
150
60 (split between SR and CR)
60 (split between SR and CR)
Praxis Study Companion
Algebra
5162
Teacher of Algebra (6-12)
150
60
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Middle School Mathematics
5169
Teacher of Mathematics (5-8)
120
55
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • Calculators are permitted on most of the Praxis® math tests.
  • While most of the Praxis® Mathematics tests are technically selected response, each of the tests above include open-ended problems that require numeric entry without answer choices to choose from.
  • Even though there is a separate Algebra Praxis® II Subject Test, algebraic concepts appear on all of the Praxis® II mathematics tests. Hence, most states and schools do not currently require it.

Additional Resources

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Pedagogy

Great teaching is about more than just content knowledge. Pedagogy, , the ability to deliver quality instruction and meet the diverse needs of learners, is just as important. Thus, most states require some formal assessment of teachers’ abilities to effectively put their content into practice.

There are numerous Praxis® II Subject Tests that focus on pedagogy. The vast majority of these tests are tied to specific student grade and developmental levels.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Education of Young Children
5024
Teacher of Early Education (PK-2)
180
120
3
Praxis Study Companion
Early Childhood Education
5025
Teacher of Early Education (PK-2)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Paraprofessional Assessment
0755
Instructional Assistant, Classroom Paraprofessional
150
90
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education
5023
Teacher of Early Education (PK-2)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Gifted Education
5358
Teacher of Gifted Education
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood
5621
Teacher of Early Education (PK-2)
150
70
4
Praxis Study Companion
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades K-6
5622
Elementary Education (K-6)
150
70
4
Praxis Study Companion
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 5-9
5623
Middle School Education (5-9)
150
70
4
Praxis Study Companion
Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7-12
5624
Secondary Education (7-12)
150
70
4
Praxis Study Companion
Elementary Education: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment
5017
Elementary Education (K-6)
130
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Elementary Education: Instructional Practice and Applications
5019
Elementary Education (K-6)
170
120
4
Praxis Study Companion
Pre-Kindergarten Education
5531
Preschool Education
120
100
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The Praxis® II Subject Tests focused on pedagogy employ some of the same question structures as the ELA tests. Many questions present test takers with short teaching scenarios to read and interpret according to best practices in instruction or assessment.
  • While there are certainly educational best practices that transcend grade levels, test takers should be sure to become familiar with the common developmental milestones and issues that arise with students in their chosen field. The tests tend to hone in on these types of specifics more so than pedagogical generalities.

Additional Resources:

  • A collection of Quizlet study materials covering a wide range of content and skills tested in the early childhood Praxis® II Subject Tests
  • A series of guides and practice tests for the K-6 Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) test from Teachers Test Prep (requires a free registration).
  • A A YouTube Playlist from user Trinity Noble that includes a variety of videos focused on the psychology, laws, and best practices associated with learning
  • A massive YouTube Playlist from David Gonder includes over 80 videos focused on the core tenets of development, learning, psychology, and pedagogy featured on the Praxis® PLT tests

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Note: These videos skew towards the grades 7-12 test, but they contain helpful information for anyone looking to brush up on their pedagogical knowledge.

Physical Education

Teaching physical education and health is a much more complex career path than most people realize. The majority of states and school districts require physical education teachers to double as health educators as well. This doubles the amount of content (and potentially certification tests) necessary for success in the field.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Physical Education: Content and Design
5095
Teacher of Physical Education (K-12)
120
90 (75% of score)
2 (25% of score)
Praxis Study Companion
Health Education
5551
Teacher of Health and Physical Education (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Health and Physical Education: Content Knowledge
5857
Teacher of Health and Physical Education (K-12)
130
130
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Physical Education: Content Knowledge
5091
Teacher of Physical Education (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

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  • The physiological, biological, and pedagogical, content on these tests can be quite dense and require ample preparation. Even those seeking to work with younger students must possess a strong understanding of material ranging from injuries and diseases to health policy and peer relationship issues.

 

Addtional Resources:

Science

Science and STEM teachers are in increasing demand nationwide. Getting certified to teach in math, science, and technological fields is a way to turn teacher shortages into career opportunities Unlike math, however, science certifications tend to be more specialized into specific subjects. The result is a much larger cadre of potential tests to take.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Elementary Education: Science
5005 (subtest of 5001)
Elementary Teacher of Science
50
50
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Biology and General Science
5235
Teacher of Biology (6-12)
150
150
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Chemistry: Content Knowledge
5245
Teacher of Chemistry (6-12)
150
125
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Physics: Content Knowledge
5265
Teacher of Physics (6-12)
150
125
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
General Science: Content Knowledge
5435
Teacher of Science (6-12)
150
135
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Middle School Science
5440
Teacher of Early Science (5-8)
150
125
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Earth and Space Sciences: Content Knowledge
5571
Teacher of Earth Science (6-12), Teacher of Astronomy (6-12)
150
125
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Agriculture
5623
Teacher of Agriculture (5-8)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • Most of the Praxis® II science tests assess content that is at a higher level than teachers are likely to present to students as a part of their curricular standards. The idea is that, particularly at the high school level, teachers require a deeper understanding for reasons including safety, course content design, and the support of student scientific inquiry.
  • While agriculture isn’t a common course offering in many parts of the country, it has become increasingly popular as a practical application of many STEM content areas. The Praxis® II Agriculture test covers a broad range of agricultural concepts ranging from agribusiness to chemical, botanical, and earth sciences.

Additional Resources:

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Social Studies

Teaching social studies involves the synthesis of several disciplines. Successful social studies teachers synthesize content knowledge in areas like geography, civics, economics, anthropology, sociology, and history with essential ELA skills including research, writing, and argumentation.

The relevant Praxis® II Subject Tests represent the required pedagogical and curricular diversity of the field.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Elementary Education: Science
5005 (subtest of 5001)
Elementary Teacher of Science
50
50
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Biology and General Science
5235
Teacher of Biology (6-12)
150
150
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Elementary Education: Social Studies
5005 (subtest of 5001)
Elementary Teacher (K-6)
50
55
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Social Studies: Content and Interpretation
5086
Social Studies Teacher (6-12)
120
90
3 Short Answer Essays
Praxis Study Companion
Citizenship Education: Content Knowledge
5087
Teacher of Citizenship Education (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Middle School Social Studies
5089
Social Studies Teacher (5-8)
120
90
3 short-answer essays
Praxis Study Companion
Geography
5921
Teacher of Geography (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Government/Political Science
5931
Teacher of Political Science (9-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Social Studies: Content Knowledge
5081
Teacher of Social Studies, Teacher of World History, Teacher of U.S. History
120
130
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
World and U.S. History: Content Knowledge
5941
Teacher of World History, Teacher of U.S. History
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The general knowledge social studies assessments each contain a mix of content-related items and questions requiring higher-order thinking skills. For instance, the Social Studies: Content Knowledge exam is a 60/40 split between content knowledge and higher-order analytical skills.
  • The specialized Praxis® II social studies tests like Geography and Government/Political Science focus on content and instructional skills in the relevant domain.

Additional Resources:

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Special Education

Other than the STEM fields, special education is one of the most consistently in-demand areas in the education world. At the same time, it is easily one of the most complex.

Special education teachers must stay on top of a plethora of behavioral, psychological, and pedagogical trends to ensure they are employing best practices in educating particularly at-risk students. The steps to become a certified special education teacher reflect this complexity. Typically among these certification requirements is the passage of one or more special education exams aligned to state standards and developmentally appropriate practices.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Speech Communication: Content Knowledge
5221
Speech Therapist (PK-12), Teacher of Communication (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
5272
Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Visual Impairments
5282
Teacher of Students with Visual Impairments (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Speech-Language Pathology
5331
School Speech-Language Pathologist
150
132
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Applications
5354
Teacher of Gifted Education
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Behavioral Disorders/Emotional Disturbances
5372
Teacher of Special Education (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Teaching Students w/ Intellectual (Learning) Disabilities
5383
Teacher of Students with Learning Disabilities (PK-12), Teacher of Special Education (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Mild to Moderate Applications
5543
Special Education Teacher (PK-12)
120
90
3 Integrated Constructed Response Questions
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Core Knowledge and Severe to Profound Applications
5545
Special Education Teacher (PK-12)
120
90
3 Integrated Constructed Response Questions
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Preschool/Early Childhood
5691
Early Childhood Special Education Teacher (PK-2)
120
130
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Special Education: Teaching Speech to Students with Language Impairments
5881
Teacher of Speech (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Braille Proficiency
0633
Teacher of Visually Impaired Students (PK-12), Teacher of Braille (PK-12)
240
40
4 Transcriptions
Praxis Study Companion
Audiology
5342
School Audiologist (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The tests that feature both selected and constructed response questions are administered with a running clock. There is not distinct timing break between the two types of questions.
  • Several of the Praxis® II special education tests are used for certifications in non-school environments. The Speech-Language Pathology test, for example, is utilized by some state and local agencies to license speech and linguistic professionals for governmental or clinical practice.
  • The Braille Proficiency test is one of the few Praxis® tests with a performance component. Nearly half of the test’s overall score is determined by the test taker’s ability to manually transcribe text into embossed braille.

Additional Resources

Technology

The ‘T’ in STEM education continues to increase in both popularity and demand. More and more schools are adding courses like coding, networking, and digital media production into their lists of offerings. If this trend continues, teachers with the corresponding certifications will continue to find it easier to secure the teaching jobs of their dreams.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Technology Education
5051
Teacher of Technology (PK-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Computer Science
5651
Teacher of Computer Science (6-12)
180
100
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The programming and coding questions on the Computer Science test are not in any particular coding language (like C++, assembly, or Java). Instead, “pseudocode” is used that assesses the examinee’s ability to decipher and interpret general code syntax and logic.
  • The Technology Education test is approximately 80% content-focused and 20% pedagogy focused. The overall content reflects a blend of International Technology and Engineering. Educators Association (ITEEA) standards and the standards endorsed by the International Society for Technology Standards for Teachers (ISTE).

Additional Resources

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World Language

World language education continues to find its way into students’ educational careers earlier and earlier. This means there are more world language classes to teach and an increased demand for qualified educators to teach them.

The Praxis® II world language tests assess how prepared teachers are to both utilize and teach specific world languages to students of all ages.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
French: World Language
5174
Teacher of French (K-12)
180
75
3 writing tasks, 3 speaking tasks
Praxis Study Companion
German: World Language
5183
Teacher of Germany (K-12)
180
75
3 writing tasks, 3 speaking tasks
Praxis Study Companion
Spanish: World Language
5195
Teacher of Spanish (K-12)
180
75
3 writing tasks, 3 speaking tasks
Praxis Study Companion
Latin
5601
Teacher of Latin (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Chinese (Mandarin): World Language
5665
Teacher of Chinese (K-12)
180
75
4 writing tasks, 4 speaking tasks
Praxis Study Companion
World Languages Pedagogy
5841
Teachers of Foreign Languages (K-12)
120
45
2
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • The specific language tests include vocabulary, syntax, and compositions at the “Advanced-Low” level according to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).
  • For the tests that include multiple sections (listening, reading, writing, speaking, etc.), each section is timed independently. Once a section is completed, test takers cannot return to it to check or change their responses.
  • Many of the states that use these tests for licensing credentials require candidates to take both the specific language test that corresponds to their area of expertise and the World Languages Pedagogy test.

Additional Resources

  • There are a number of Quizlet study sets available for most of the languages with available Praxis® II Subject Tests: Spanish, French, and German. That said, the level of linguistic mastery required for a passing score likely requires years of study. These resources should only be considered tools for keeping skills and vocabulary sharp.
  • These flashcards for the World Languages Pedagogy test are helpful regardless of the test taker’s language of choice.

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Other Praxis Tests

There are several Praxis® II Subject Tests that apply to special educational roles that don’t fit neatly into larger departments or areas of study. However, since they are educational positions, they require certification and licensure just like any other teacher or educational professional. These tests help states assess and verify individuals’ qualifications to fill these niche roles.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Family and Consumer Sciences
5122
Teacher of Home Economics (6-12), Teacher of Family and Consumer Sciences (6-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Library Media Specialist
5311
School Librarian, School Media Specialist
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
School Psychologist
5402
School Psychologist (K-12)
140
140
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Professional School Counselor
5421
School Counselor (K-12)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision
5411
Various Administrative Positions
120
110
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • ETS warns that The Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision test potentially still contains references to No Child Left Behind, despite federal policy shifts.
  • The Professional School Counselor test was formerly the School Guidance and Counseling test but was changed to reflect the American School Counselor Association’s removal of the word “guidance” from school counselors’ titles.

Additional Resources:

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Multiple Subject Tests

The Praxis® II Subject Tests include several general knowledge exams. These survey-type tests cover wide swaths of content, but do so with less depth than most of the previously listed tests do.

Test Name Test Number Commonly Associated Certifications Test Length (min) Selected Response Questions Constructed Response Question Official ETS Practice Material
Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects
5001
Elementary Teacher (K-6)
255
235
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Middle School: Content Knowledge
5146
Middle School Teacher (5-8)
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion
Fundamental Subjects: Content Knowledge
5511
Used as a general content assessment for various certifications
120
120
N/A
Praxis Study Companion

Fast Facts:

  • Like most multi-subject Praxis® tests, registering for the Elementary Education: Multiple Subjects test has a lower registration fee than registering for the individual subtests separately.
  • The Middle School: Content Knowledge test is commonly paired with specific Praxis® II Subject Tests for credentialing teachers of grades 6-8 in specific content areas.

Additional Resources:

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