How to Become a Counselor

Whether working in rehabilitation, education, mental health or other fields, there are hundreds of thousands of professionals who’ve found their calling as counselors in the United States. This is unsurprising when considering that counseling is a profession that’s in demand and could be personally gratifying, but many people are unaware of what exactly it is that counselors do, how to become a counselor, and what opportunities await counselors. These subjects, and more, are covered below.

What Does a Counselor Do?

The American Counseling Association (ACA), the world’s largest professional association exclusively for counselors, describes counseling as a “collaborative effort between the counselor and client” in which the two “identify goals and potential solutions to problems which cause emotional turmoil; seek to improve communication and coping skills; strengthen self-esteem; and promote behavior change and optimal mental health.” Counselors work toward these aims through a variety of methods, but most often by engaging in individual therapy, group discussions, and referrals to other healthcare professionals and social services. The steps to become a counselor include building foundational skills and expertise in one of these specializations, typically through graduate degree programs in counseling or similar fields, as well as obtaining state-issued license.

Steps to Becoming a Counselor

As mentioned above, counselors must typically complete undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs, in addition to securing licensure from the state in which they intend to legally practice. Sometimes counselors may also opt for pursuing their Doctorate in Counseling. The steps to become a counselor are as follows:

Step 1: Undergraduate Education

As far as undergraduate education goes, aspiring counselors can pick from almost any field they desire, as long as it is offered by an accredited school. While some colleges and universities may offer a Bachelor’s in Counseling, many do not. Thus, most graduate counseling programs — as well as the American Counseling Association — recommend that a student looking to become a counselor obtain a bachelor’s in a related subject, such as psychology, or any other liberal arts major.

Step 2: Post Graduate

The aspiring counselor’s choices of counseling graduate programs are better defined. Of course, the best option is a Master’s in Counseling from a program accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP), but state licensing agencies may also be open to candidates holding post-graduate degrees in related fields.

Step 3: Licensure

After graduation from a graduate counseling program, aspiring counselors should pursue state licensure for practice. While the licensure requirements will vary from state to state, the process typically involves verification of completed coursework, proof of citizenship, recommendations from academic, practicum, or internship supervisors, and satisfactory examination results. Although some state licensing boards have developed their own examinations, many rely on one of two tests offered by the National Board for Certified Counselors: the National Counselor Examination or the National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Examination. For the definitive list of your state’s requirements, please visit your state’s counseling licensing board. Some states also have policies of reciprocity, wherein they will grant licenses to licensed counselors from other states, and endorsement, wherein they will consider granting licenses to licensees from other states through review.

Types of Counselors

Although the foundational skills of counseling can apply to different populations, some people want to become a counselor to help particular clients. Some types of counselors include mental health, career, school, rehabilitation and substance abuse. Master’s in Counseling degree programs may offer tracks or electives which allow students to specialize in the area of their choice, such as career, college, school, and mental health counselor. State licensing agencies may similarly offer specialty licensure in these areas through coursework verification and certification, such as that offered by the National Board for Certified Counselors.

Types of Counselors

Bachelor’s Degree in Counseling

Professional counselors often have requirements stipulating they hold at least a Master’s in Counseling or a similar degree in a related field, thus a worthwhile Bachelor’s in Counseling program should prepare graduates for their graduate studies. This should include courses in psychology, mental health, therapy, substance abuse, ethics, and, of course, counseling. Bachelors in Counseling programs will also often require a capstone or internship, in which students use their learned clinical skills on-site at social service or healthcare facilities.

Master’s Degree in Counseling

Master’s degree in counseling programs should be accredited by CACREP to best prepare you for your state’s counseling licensure. According to CACREP, a Master’s in Counseling degree program should consist of graduate-level study with a minimum of 60 semester credit hours or 90 quarter credit hours. These hours should cover eight common core areas:

  • professional counseling orientation and ethical practice
  • social and cultural diversity
  • human growth and development
  • career development
  • counseling and helping relationships
  • group counseling and group work
  • assessment and testing
  • research and program evaluation

In addition, the program should incorporate both a practicum of at least 100 clock hours over a full academic term, including at least 40 hours of direct client service, and an internship of at least 600 hours of supervised counseling, with at least 240 hours of direct client service.

Masters in Mental Health Counseling

In addition to the common core curriculum described above, CACREP stipulates requirements for specialties, like mental health counseling. These standards cover foundational, contextual, and practical elements that come together to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to operate within the mental health setting. They range from coursework in neurobiology and psychopharmacology, to experience in intake interviews and mental health intervention.

Masters in School Counseling

CACREP also stipulates requirements for the school counseling specialty. As with other specialties, these cover foundational, contextual, and practical elements, though in this case to ensure graduates are prepared to meet the demands of preschool through 12th grade setting. Coursework covers career development, school emergency management, and community resources, while experience ranges from curriculum design to promotion of graduation rates.